Peer reviewer reports are available. The liquor monopoly lasted only from 98 to 81 BC, and the salt and iron monopolies were eventually abolished in early Eastern Han.

Hsu, Mei-ling , "The Qin maps: He could appoint officials below the salary-rank of bushels.

The first group were people seized during military campaigns. Peltzer, A. Jayapalan , Economic History of India: