Balmorhea, population , has never been an oil-and-gas hub. Organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen. Oil and gas companies, along with firms that serve them, have responded by paying for some road safety projects and providing housing for their workers.

It may contain higher concentrations of olefins , oxygen , and nitrogen than conventional crude oil. Some mineral extraction also takes place in deserts, and the uninterrupted sunlight gives potential for the capture of large quantities of solar energy.

Pollutants the plant discharged over those months included tons of lung-damaging sulfur dioxide. And now she and every other Permian leader face a pressing question: